Here’s a list with some resources for spatial data that I have used in my research and that I will continuously update over time. If you have other datasets that you think might be useful for others, please drop me a mail and I will add it to the list. Thanks!
R is a wonderful programming language for data manipulation and statistical programming. R is also extremely powerful when it comes to spatial data. The main packages for GIS in R to get familiar with are sp for vectorized representations of spatial data and raster for spatial grids. The sf package is certainly also worth mentioning and can be considered a new and improved version of sp. But there are many more useful packages and their number is constantly growing. Here are some links to tutorials to get you started with GIS in R: